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European glass

European glass During this era in all countries of Western Europe intensive development the glass making occurs with active participation of the fluent Venetian masters involved with prospect of huge earnings. So, in HYII an eyelid Kolbez, involving to France the Venetian glaziers, not only I paid to them a huge salary, but in case of a marriage on the Frenchwoman I endowed of 25 000 ECU. Therefore, despite severity of supervision and cases of murder running glass making agents of the Venetian government, without exaggeration it is possible to tell that modern Europe passed school a glass making under the leadership of Venetians.

With disintegration of the Roman Empire glass making in various areas began to gain the features. The center the glass making in the east still remained Alexandria making magnificent products for export. In the West Cologne (Germany) became the large glass producer. The German glass was less graceful and florid, than Alexandria.

European glass vase In the early Middle Ages in Europe the glassblowing underwent some changes. Due to the difficulties in raw materials import the glass made with use of soda, gave way to the glass produced by means of potash, received by wood burning. In woody districts of France, Germany, Bohemia prepared glass with use of wood ashes and ashes of a fern, a cane and other plants. In these ashes potash (carbonic potassium) prevailed. Ashes of different plants gave to glass various properties: aspen, maple, ash-tree - the best color, a birch - big refractoriness, etc.

In medieval Western Europe Gothic style eras production of stained-glass windows was the most important area of art stimulating development of taste to art glass. At that time for cutting of glass used the heated iron rod. Diamond for glasses are sharp started being applied only in the XVI century.

Gothic European glass In the XI century the German masters, and in the XIII Venetian, learned to develop a flat windowpane so-called "a free method".

"Holyava" - the glass bubble which the master glass making blew with the help of a glass-blowing tube and shook it over a ditch, standing on a special scaffold. Under the influence of gravity the bubble was extended in the cylinder up to 3 meters long and up to 45 cm wide. Then at the cylinder hot cut off top and a bottom, the cylinder cut on length and stacked on an equal plate which placed in the furnace and there leveled. The sheets received thus were fastened together with lead strips and were established in a window. Such windows were considered as luxury goods, by them were glazed, generally royal palaces and churches.

The considerable contribution to science about glass was made by medieval alchemists. Besides, that they were the great glass blowers making vessels of difficult forms for the experiences, they experimented compositions of glasses. In the second half of HU11 of an eyelid the known German alchemist Johann Kunkel, the author of the composition "Experimental art a glass making" invented a way of receiving red glass, so-called "a gold ruby" (the Kremlin stars were made of such glass). European glass spider This way kept by the author the most strict secret, was lost with his death, and again opened only in H1H an eyelid by M. Lomonosov.

Further development a glass making in Europe went in two directions - improvements of ways of production of products and enrichment of compositions of glass.

There were new types of products - optical, technical, construction glasses.

The whole revolution in the glass industry of HU11 of an eyelid was caused by opening of Mikhail Müller who for the first time welded glass which differed unusual transparency in thick-walled products. This glass is known under the name "Bohemian crystal", and traditions of its production reached up to now. European ancient glass jug Massive cut products from Bohemian crystal forced out from the markets of Europe easy, fragile and gentle products from Murano's island.

1674 Englishman George Ravenkroft patented a new way of production of the crystal, urged to replace with itself murano crystal. Ravenkroft replaced potash with lead oxide in a high proportion that allowed it to receive brilliant glass with high refracting properties. This glass perfectly gave in are sharp also to an engraving. The main advantage of the English lead crystal, got to it the European popularity, - game and a sparkling of the polished sides refracting rays of light, and a melodious ring.

In 1688 in France applied a new method of production of glass and a mirror. The melted glass poured out on a special table and was rolled to a flat state. Then preparation was cooled and polished by means of iron disks and very small abrasive sand. Final polishing was made by felt disks. Glass with unprecedented earlier high optical properties became result of similar process. Covered on the one hand a reflecting layer of silver, glass turned into a high-quality mirror.

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