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Glass matter in Russia at M. Lomonosov

glass goblet from Russia Remarkable opening in the field of creation of color glasses and smalts are connected with activity of the great Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov (1711-1765).

In 1748 it organized laboratory in which made experiments with glass coloring at the Petersburg academy of Sciences, personally cooked smalt, having developed a palette of a color glass mosaic.

M. V. Lomonosov conducted basic scientific researches in glass chemistry. Scientific works of Lomonosov on color glass had considerable impact on Russian art the steklodely. The plants which were letting out earlier, except white, only green and blue glass, after Lomonosov started letting out multi-color, colourful production.

M. V. Lomonosov started working as the glass technologist and the artist-mozaist in the 1740th years. The scientist dreamed of revival of the mosaics intended, according to him "for furniture of huge public structures" which samples he saw in temples of Kiev and Novgorod XI-XII centuries.

glass vase made in Lomonosov plant Having done huge work, Lomonosov acquired a monopoly for production of color glasses in Russia for what in 1753, near Petersburg, the Ust-Ruditsky factory was put, Lomonosov was the designer and which engineer.

Lomonosov itself and according to its instructions pupils executed a number of mosaic works from the smalt welded here, among which grandiose color mosaic picture "Poltava Fight" (1762-1764). From its three known works Peter I which is storing in the Hermitage the portrait is especially interesting.

Its opening reach foreign countries. Factory production, recipes, raw materials, dyes, furnaces, cars, machines and tools changed constantly and improved. At first beads, bugles and mosaic structures (smalt) were issued only. Then there are various haberdashery products: cut stones, suspension brackets, brooches, cuff links. Since 1757 the factory lets out table services, toilet and desk sets.

The special attention at factory was paid to hot processing of glass. Designing special furnaces and machines, Lomonosov brought production to a high technological level. The mosaics made from the ust-ruditskikh of smalts, differed big technical and art advantages. In the Chinese palace two tables, and also frames for Peter I and Elizabeth Petrovna's bas-reliefs, decoratively issued by a mosaic from these smalts remained. For finishing the oraniyenbaumskikh of palaces at Ust-Ruditsky factory a large number of bugles, and also smalts for a floor in the Steklyarusny office of the Chinese palace was made.

colored glass made in Lomonosov plant Lomonosov "not only composed recipes... and the hands I hanged out materials and in the furnace I put... ", but also I devoted to glass one of the most romantic odes. It and is called "The ode to glass", and in it there is a line

"... I sing praise not to gold, but glass... "

Production of glass in Russia in HUP-HUSh eyelids

In HUP-HUSh eyelids glass makers in Russia developed both under the auspices of the imperial yard, and at the initiative of merchants and the industrialists opening private plants.

The state (state) glass plant passed a number of style stages in Petersburg - from baroque of Petrovsky time to early classics. Products of plant gained more and more difficult and rich character - mirrors and crystal ware for palace rooms, chandeliers of the Venetian and Bohemian type, lamps for illumination of streets. With emergence at M. V. Lomonosov's plant, the plant started letting out and color glasses.

Russian Lomonosov glass goblet It is interesting to note that already at that time to responsible positions the most capable workers moved forward. Their children were defined by students in the Mountain case for training in "chemical science" and during training earned from plant a salary. At plant the school for "juvenile masterful children" where they were trained in the diploma and drawing was founded. Shots for plant prepared seriously.

The Russian tsars sought to prevent all diplomatic maneuvers possibility of serious collisions with neighboring countries. The special role was played by gifts to governors of the Asian countries that was in good spirits customs of east people. Often as such gifts products of the Petersburg plant appeared. So, in 1819 among other gifts the crystal pool was sent to the Persian shah. The pool was pleasant to the shah, and he wished to have for a complete set at it and a crystal bed. The bed represented the spacious bed located on a wide pedestal. Glass parts fastened to the iron framework revetted with silvered copper. The flooring and steps to a bed were laid out from the polished turquoise glass plates, and lateral walls and armrests are made of transparent crystal of very difficult facet. On corners four carved crystal columns settled down. The bed was surrounded by seven fountains in the form of crystal vases.

glass made in Russia Lomonosov plant This precious construction was sent to Tehran in unassembled form. It was accompanied by the chief of expedition lieutenant Noskov and two masters of glass plant for assembly of a crystal bed on a place. It is difficult to imagine those disasters which were tested by these unfortunate travelers: months they went on sledge and on a military transport vessel, floated by boats on the marshy river, had tropical fever. Religious fanatics nearly didn't kill "incorrect" during the holiday. While the shah traveled around the country, they for weeks waited for it in Tehran, didn't die yet of tropical fever. I survived only Socks. It had most to collect a bed, being guided by drawings. The shah graciously accepted a gift and awarded the order to Noskov "A lion and the Sun" and two cashmere shawls. The lieutenant Noskov safely returned to Petersburg and left interesting memories of the travel.

Lomonosov plant glass collection Thanks to proximity of production technologies of glass and porcelain, later the plant turned into Imperial glass and porcelain plant. Now it is known as the Leningrad porcelain plant.