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Types of nesting dolls and production technology

Sergievskaya Matryoshka is a round-faced girl in a headscarf and sundress with apron. The dyes used very bright. There are 3 or 4 colors in painting (yellow, red or orange, green and blue). Lines of the face and clothing outlined with black contour. In 1930 Sergiev Posad was renamed Zagorsk, and since that time this type of painting was called Zagorskaya.

Now there are many kinds of nesting dolls - Semyonovskaya, Merinovskaya, Polkhovskaya, Vyatskaya. The most popular are Maidanovskaya (from Połkhov Maidan) and Semyonovskaya nesting dolls.

Polkhovsky Maidan - a famous center for making and painting Matryoshka dolls. It located in the southwest of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The main element of Polkhovskaya nesting dolls is flower - multilobal briar ("Rose"), next to which can be half-open flower buds on the branches. At first, artists outline the circuit by ink and then they paint the main image upon this. They paint on a first coat by starch, then overlays the product with clear lacquer twice or thrice.

Semyonovskaya Matryoshka characterized by bright colors, mainly yellow and red. Headscarf usually painted with polka dots. The first nested dolls artel in Semenovo was organized in 1929. It united the masters of toy from Semenovo and nearby villages. This city is famous mainly as khokhloma painting, and art making toys was a second handicraft for artisans.

Vyatskaya nesting dolls - the most northern of all Russian Matryoshka dolls. Vyatka long been famous products from birch bark and bark (boxes, baskets, pots), in which, in addition to an exquisite weaving technique was used and the embossed ornamental pattern. The special peculiarity of Viatka painted wooden doll got in the 60s, when nesting dolls became not only painted with aniline dyes, but also inlaid straw. It became a kind of innovation in the design of nested dolls. For inlays were used rye straw which were grown in special areas and cut carefully and manually with a sickle.

Nesting dolls - production technology

First of all must choose a tree. Usually it can be linden, birch, aspen or larch. The tree should be cut down carefully in early spring or winter in order to it was not enough juice. Trunk of tree should be smooth, without knots. Trunks are handled and stored in such a way that air was access to the timber. It is important that the trunk should not be too dry. Drying time of approximately is two to three years. Masters say that the tree should be "ringing".

First of all, the smallest doll appears which does not open. After the first doll, master make a lower part of the next doll. First nesting dolls consisted of no more than six - eight parts, and in recent years appear the 35-seater dolls, and not only. Masters demonstrated in Tokyo Semenovskaya Matryoshka consisting of 70 parts. The nesting dolls was one metre height.

The upper part of the second Matryoshka not should be dried, but immediately puts on the bottom. Thanks to the fact that the upper part is dried on the needed spot, all of the parts of nesting dolls are flush with each other and are keep well.

When the body of nesting dolls is ready, masters sanded and primed it. Then a process begins that gives each nesting dolls their individuality - it is painting. First, artists make base drawing by pencil. Sometimes they burn out pattern, and then make tone by means of watercolor.

Then art masters outline the contours of the nesting dolls mouth, eyes, cheeks. Only after that they draw clothes for nesting dolls. Usually for painting Matryoshka used gouache, watercolor or acrylic. Each locality has its own canons of painting, its colors and shapes. Masters from Polkhovsky Maidan, Merinovo and Semenovo are painting on nesting dolls by means of aniline dyes after priming surface. Dyes are diluted by alcohol solution. The painting on the Matryoshka from Sergiev Posad is made without preliminary drawing gouache, and only rarely it painting in watercolor and tempera. The color intensity is achieved by lacquering.

What are the main features of a good nesting dolls? All parts of doll could enter into each other easily. Two parts of nesting dolls should adjoin with each other tightly, and don't dangle. Image on the good doll should be absolutely correct and sharp. And the good doll should be beautiful certainly. First nesting dolls were covered with wax. When nesting dolls became a child's toy, they were covered with varnish. Lacquer coating were protecting the doll against damage, also preserving pattern and color longer. Most interesting is that the first Matryoshka dolls was burning out facial contours and costume. And even if the paint had peeled off, what was done by burning out, remained for a long time.

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