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Lampworking - art glass producing method

A lamp-working method - one of the oldest forms of artistic glass work - is to manufacture any decorative products made of colored glass art, of glass tubes and rods in a gas flame. Variations of this method are blowing and molding of solid glass.

Glassblowers do not work in the shop by the glass-furnace, but by the table, typically in a separate room. The table surface is covered with sheet asbestos or some other refractory material. The burner is mounted in the middle section, close to the front edge. A flexible hose highways gas, compressed air and oxygen are attached to the burner. Gates set these lines to the left of the glass blower under the table. Left from the master are set wooden shelving and stands for semi-finished and finished products, tools are laid out to the right. The lighting should be soft and uniform, so the master could follow the nature and progress of the flame manufacturing. For flue gas and heat generation in the glass workshop arrange supply and exhaust ventilation. A glass burner has cranes, which control the expense of gas, air and oxygen. Gas, oxygen and air are mixed, passed through the mesh inside the cylindrical burner and a conical nozzle. With the help of hinge a burner is mounted in different positions and secured to the table by plate, a clamping screw and a metal clamp. A burner is adjusted the vertical and horizontal positions by clamping screws. Oxygen bags are mounted outside the workshop.

In case of insufficient air supply smoky flame turns bright yellow ( flame is often used for heating products), with a slight excess air flame fades, its temperature rises, feeding oxygen instead of air turns bluish flame of very high temperature. For the manufacture of large exclusive art glass products used devices and burners with a torch of different shapes (broad, flat, ring, etc.).

Quartz- glass is refractory and has a softening point high, however for the manufacture of quartz glass using a hydrogen-oxygen burner flame giving high temperature.

Blanks for glass-blowing works are colored and colorless glass in bars and tubes or thin-walled cylindrical flask of large diameter. Pale in bars and tubes manufactured by the pulling on automatic machines. Colored blanks are produced manually. For keeping blanks shelving with vertical compartments is arranged from nearby workplaces.

For glass-blowing works various tools are used. For example, large diameter cut blanks, heating a narrow zone on the sagging tungsten wire, which is heated electric shock. Enough to moisten the stock in water heating and zone breaks off the heating line. Directly in the processing of glass art in the flame used tweezers, scanners and holders. Sharp steel tweezers pulled softened glass, pierce holes and formed small parts. Required to collapse the window wide steel tweezers with overlays of non-ferrous metals (copper, brass), and sometimes graphite. For cutting glass tubes used a knife with lamina blade, which leaving a scratch on the glass, then the stocks are easily broken off by hands. Glass tubes can be cut with thin diamond wheel. Hot glass is cut with scissors. Sweeps (triangular copper on wooden spatula or wooden handles short cylinder with pointed conical ends) are used to deploy funnels and support blood vessels, as well as to align the cavities and edges inside. Holders resemble grip, they are necessary to manufacture large glass products.

The main methods of modeling and glassblowing burners are: accumulation of glass in the form of a ball on the end of a glass rod, flattening the heated end of the glass rod, smooth flexing it, welding, as well as work with glass tubes.

A stock of a glass tube prepared in the following sequence: taking up the glass tube, and heating it in a burner flame to soften slightly compress the space heating from two sides, then the ends of the tube is stretched until it terminates in heating; heating ends we get a stock with capillary drawn .

When sealing hollow billets, bending them into inflating balloon etc., control the shape of the product.

If the products have a complex configuration with considerable thickness, after manufacturing they are annealed. Annealing is necessary in the manufacture of thin-walled products with auxiliary parts complex configuration to items in the field of welding glass is not cracked.

Large technical details and artistic products are treated at glassblowing machines resembling turning.

Glassblowing production involves the use of open flame. To prevent any gas explosion, burner is lit after airing the room and working supply and exhaust ventilation devices. Not to cut your hands should be thoroughly melted ends of the glass tubes during the blowing. When cutting glass tubes and glazing beads, please, should not push hard on them.