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Nesting dolls in Sergiev Posad

First Matryoshka stays now in the Museum of Toys in Sergiev Posad.

Painted in gouache, it looks not very festive.

Here we are talking continually - Matryoshka, Matryoshka... But first this doll did not even have a name. And when turner made it, and the artist painted, then the name has come by itself - Matryona. They say - on the Abramtsevo evenings maidservant with the same name served the tea. If we loop through a thousand names, and none is better not suit for this wooden doll.

New toy immediately became popular. In the same year as this doll came into being, the Russian consul reported to that in Germany Nuremberg firm "Albert Gerh" and turner Johann Wilde began to forge a Russian nesting doll. The same news came from France. However, as time has shown these toys not acclimatized there.

World triumph of nesting dolls was on the exhibition in Paris in 1900. In 1911, orders for the toy were already received from 14 countries in the world.

Sergiev Posad, the beginning of XX century

Matryoshka appeared in Sergiev Posad in early XX century. Hereditary master of painting S. A. Ryabushkin recalled how his father in 1902 brought from Moscow nesting dolls, and all the neighbors were come to look at it: they were astonished and admired unusual doll. It should be noted that in those days it was very expensive doll: as ND Bartram said, the cost of toys reached up to 10 rubles for a piece, then it was huge money. Subsequently, many icon-painters engaged painted nesting dolls, among them A. I. Sorokin, D. N. Pichugin, A. I. Tokarev, as well as workshops R. S. Busygins and brothers V. S. and P. S. Ivanovs and others. Old Matryoshka differed nobility and warmth of color. The artists used the painterly effects of icons: painting "by poking", "by contour", meticulous drawing faces. Preforms for painting were coming in Posad from Babenki Podolsky district, where the first industrial making of nesting dolls had been established. In woodturning art was not equal Podolsk masters.

In 1891 in Sergiev Posad was opened educational toys exponential workshop on the initiative of the Zemstvo. Vladimir Ivanovich Borutsky was at the head. At the base of workshop in 1913 was organized a handicraft industrial artel of Toy, which was renamed in "Artel RKKA" after the revolution. Then in 1928 it was transformed into a toy factory (now the number one toy factory). There were began to produce nesting dolls after closing in Moscow workshop "Children education". In 1905, VI Borutsky invited turner Zvezdochkin VP from Sergievskaya studio who taught hundreds of students. In the 1930-s came Podolsk`s turners Romahin`s, Kuznetsov`s, Berezin`s, Belousov`s, Nefedov`s, Novizentsev`s to Zagorsk (since renamed Sergiev Posad in 1930). Masters S.F.Nefedov, D.I.Novizentsev, V.N.Kozhevnikov - the best manufacturers of nesting dolls as yet.

Matryoshka was in great demand not only in Russia but also abroad. After the World's Fair in Paris (1900) Zemskaya workshop received orders to it. Nesting dolls were appearing on the toy fair in Leipzig annually. Even went so far as foreigners started to forge matryoshka: in 1908 the Russian consul reported from Germany to Saint Petersburg (Nuremberg company "Albert Lerch" dealt with this).

Gradually the range of nesting dolls was expanded in Sergiev Posad. At first there were only dolls, depicting girls in sundresses and headscarves, with baskets, small knots, sickles, bouquets of flowers and sheaves of wheat. New nesting dolls began to depict: girls in sheepskin jacket, with a shawl on her head, with felt boots in her hands, herdboy with reed-pipe, an old man with a full beard and a big stick, Old Believer woman in black sundress with rosary, the groom and the bride with candles in their hands - inside were placed their family.

Was released a large series of boyars. In 1909, on the centenary of birth of Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol, were made nesting dolls “Taras Bulba”, “Gorodnichiy” with Anna Andreevna inside, “Khlestakov”, “The judge”, “The postmaster” and other characters of the comedy "The Inspector General". In 1912, the 100th anniversary of World War II with the French, were made nesting dolls from eight parts depicting Kutuzov and Napoleon with the members of their staffs inside. Masters made nesting dolls on the theme of fairy tales and fables "Quartet", "Goldfish", "The Little Humpbacked Horse", "Turnip", "Prince Ivan", "The Firebird" and others. They also tried to change the form of nesting dolls, began to produce figures in the form of Old Russian helmet, as well as a cone. These toys are not found in demand, their manufacture has stopped. So far Matryoshka produced in traditional form. It should be noted that not all wooden figures are called nesting dolls, but only those that are nested one to other.

In 1911 educational-demonstrational workshop in Sergiev Posad was producing twenty one kind of nesting dolls, comprising from 2 to 24 pieces one inside the other. Most common are nesting dolls of three, eight and twelve parts. In 1913 babensky turner N. Boulichev made Matryoshka of 48 figures for the exhibition of toys in Saint Petersburg.

In the twenties of the last century, the production of nesting dolls was established in the Nizhny Novgorod region (now Gorky Region), in Semenovo and Merinovо villages, and the village Polkhov Maidan. Master A.F.Mayorov (1885-1937) brought Matryoshka of Sergiev Posad, toy is liked. They began to make their nesting dolls: were painting on the starchy ground, image by pen were making more bright with aniline dyes.

Semyonovskaya Matryoshka is more slender and elongated, flowers depicted on the doll instead of a sundress and apron. Zagorskaya (Sergievskaya: in 1991 Zagorsk renamed in Sergiev Posad again) nesting dolls were painting by gouache, sometimes were covering with varnish.

In 1918 was established in Moscow Toy Museum, in which the workshop was opened. There were making toys. In 1931, the Toy Museum moved to Zagorsk.

In 1932 in Zagorsk the world's first scientific and experimental institute toys opened, among the numerous examples of different toys was machined 42-bedded nesting dolls "Forty two years to Soviet power". Production of nesting dolls went in many areas of the USSR with the assistance of the Institute of toys. Each district had its own doll shape: so nesting dolls from Kirov were decorated by straw, matryoshka from Ufa (enterprise "Agidel") retained the Bashkir national flavor.