Home :: Steklodeliye (Glass production) in ancient Russia

Steklodeliye (Glass production) in ancient Russia

glass making in ancient Russia Development a glass making took place a thorny road in Russia.

Foreigners called ancient Russia the country of the cities, were surprised to development of crafts and arts, spoke about Kiev as about the rival of Constantinople.

Glass making in Russia developed in IX - X centuries, i.e. much earlier, than in America (XVII century) and earlier, than in many other countries of Western Europe (England, Sweden, Venice, Bohemia, Lorraine, Normandy, etc.).

In X-X1 eyelids in Kiev already there were workshops for production of glass bracelets, a beads, rings and thin glasses.

Did as well "window circles" - round glasses for the windows, produced by casting of fusion of glass on a metal plate. In Russia in H1-HSh eyelids the thick-walled windowpane of only a round form was used. In sources of that time the word "window" isn't for nothing used, its diameter didn't exceed 20 - 30 centimeters. In many respects from here - from opportunities of technology of that time - the tradition also went to use round and semicircular windows in the Russian architecture.

glass blowing in Russia The same workshops were in Novgorod, Ryazan, Chernigov and many other cities. Glass jewelry was rather cheap, they were worn by women and children, having put on on slightly multicolored - smooth and twisted - bracelets one hand.

In Kerch and Chersonese splinters of the greenish windowpanes similar to glasses, Pompeii used in terms (baths), are found in Italy, the Rhine provinces.

In 1668 construction of "state" (state) plant in the village Izmailovo near Moscow (now Moskovsky district Izmailovo) was begun. This plant worked already and for export. "The ware of Izmaylovsky business" was taken out to Persia - jugs, сулеи (decanters), glasses. At Izmaylovsky plant "venitseyets" were masters.

The general boom which has begun in reign of Peter I, took also glass business. Development of glass production was caused by great demand for glass products - a windowpane, mirrors, ware which old glass plants (Dukhannnsky, Izmaylovsky, Chernogolovsky) couldn't satisfy existing in the XVII century in the Moscow Russia and aspiration to refuse expensive import of foreign glass.

glass production in Russia Peter I patronized development a glass makes: I cancelled duties on products, I invited the German masters, I sent Russians to study abroad.

The major role in further development a glass blowing in Russia was played by the state glass plant put by Peter I in the first years of the 18th eyelid on Vorobyovy Gory near Moscow and to the middle of 18 century together with Yamburg plants transferred to Petersburg. This plant became a sample for all other glass enterprises of the country, original school for the Russian masters of glass business and laboratory of development of new equipment. Prominent Russian experts took part in its work in the field of art, science and equipment, among them M. V. Lomonosov, T. de Tomon, K. I. Rossi, A. N. Voronikhin, V.P. Stasov, I. P. Kulibin at different times. The Russian working-outstanding masters of glass business - created the remarkable works of art which are amazing all Europe and being stored now in palaces and the museums at this plant.

glass production in ancient Russia In 1723 at plant in Yamburg the unique construction - a musical belfry for the Peterhof fountains, consisting of a set of glass bells of various size and sounding was made.

In 1720 the decree "About Establishment of Mirror Plants in Kiev" was issued.

In Elizabeth's reign (1741-61) only about Moscow there were already six glass plants. By this time already managed to be shown and their negative sides - destruction of the woods in vicinities and water pollution. Therefore the decree about not structure about Moscow again wine and glass plants to which communication water isn't present, and about purchase and preparation on those plants to the wood and firewood from distant, instead of close places" was issued ".