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The composition of art glass

For the manufacture of glass we use a lot of different materials. The main of them are silica sand, soda, potash, chalk, limestone, dolomite, red lead. To improve the transparency and gloss special elements are introduced into glass, such as boric anhydride, potash and zinc oxide. In order to eliminate the harmful action of the coloring impurities (contained in the silica sand), and destruction of the natural green hue window (which is formed from iron oxides) to discolor oxides of certain metals (manganese, cobalt, selenium). To release air bubbles from molten glass formed during cooking, use nitrate, sodium chloride, arsenic oxide and others. Lead gives melodious ringing to glass. The more it in the glass, the more clean and subtle sound art makes when tapped on his stick.

When cooking glass we use a variety of support materials: muffler, oxidants, accelerators, colorants. Muffler forms weak tint with different color shades in the surface layers of glass. For this purpose we use any fluorine compounds, porcelain, tin, which give the glass a milky white color, and zinc sulfide.

Reducing and oxidizing agents are added to the weight when cooked colored glass to create a specific environment. Accelerators of cooking are fluoride, boric anhydride, etc. The addition of the molten glass in various chemical elements enables artists and craftsmen to create an infinite variety of color combinations of glass. As the dyes are used mainly heavy metals - cobalt, manganese, chromium, copper, gold and some rare earth elements. Copper oxide and copper sulfate are stained glass in blue and turquoise colors. Cobalt oxide (cobalt glass) gives a rich blue color, chromium oxide - intense green color, sometimes with a yellowish tinge, and the addition of chromium oxide to copper oxide - pure green (emerald). Juicy yellow glass is obtained by adding to a cadmium sulfide, and brown is made by impurities of iron oxides. Selenium or sodium selenite stained glass in pink.

The most interesting colors in the colored glass are obtained by using the rare earth elements and their oxides: neodymium, selenium, praseodymium, titanium, etc. Neodymium oxides introduce pale lilac color into the glass. If selenium is added to it, the glass will get pink and purple. Praseodymium oxide is often used to produce a green glass. Addendum neodymium oxide will change color to blue with a noticeable purple tint. Cerium oxide gives the glass a light lemon- yellow coloring, which can be enhanced by introducing titanium dioxide. Glass from orange to bright red shades can be obtained by using compounds of selenium and cadmium sulfide in a different proportion. Dark cherry color will bring in copper ruby glass and potassium salt of tartaric.

Colored glass in recent years has expanded assortment of souvenirs and art products made by gutnov technology.

In the production of artistic products and souvenirs used soda-lime (or soda), lime-soda-potassium (different special transparency) and crystal glass. Crystal is a special kind of glass, which is composed of significant amounts of lead oxides, potassium, etc. Crystal glass products feature high transparency, high refractive indices and light scattering, shiny surface, soft (easily treatable - application faces), high density, long melodic ringing at the light hitting the edge of the contact or when two crystal products touching. All this leads to widespread use of crystal glass to produce highly different products.

One of the most famous production of glass art is hand-blowing. It is the oldest form of artistic glass making, especially in Russia. A unique collection of Russian art glass is situated in a famous Russian Store. And people are very proud of it.

Hand-blown glass was discovered around 50 B.C. At that time it was a luxury and owned only by the patrons. Now glass-blowing and hand-blowing can be found in different schools and manufactures and can be seen at exhibitions, demonstration events and hand-making markets. Glass art can be practical or decorative. Of course, it takes a lot of practice to become a professional. But it has beautiful results.

The process of hand-blowing glass is a complicated one, but we try to explain how glass figures are made in a simply way.

If you want to make a masterpiece from the glass you should follow the next rules: to form the glass into the ball, to flatten the heated end, then to weld it and always work with glass tubes. The table should be covered with asbestos or any other refractory materials, as well as glass-blowing. A burner with the oxygen, which is compressed, is situated in the middle of the table. This burner regulates gas, air and oxygen itself. If you want you can keep the burner in horizontal and vertical positions.

To make bubbles in different shapes the hand-blower uses a special blowpipe and when he wants to make a beautiful piece of art he uses additional tools in various shapes like circular, wide or flat.

The process of hand-blowing is making under very high temperature, so you always need special protective glasses. Besides it helps you to see how the bubbles become the pieces of glass. Necessary colors are slowly added through the tube, when glass is ready to change by the air. When the piece of glass is completely made, the master takes it from the burner and the masterpiece cools down in comfort temperature.

Enjoy this art and you`ll see how the time is stopped under the glass!